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Indlela yokufudukela kuMbindi weMeditera

Ukufuduka kuphuma kuMntla Afrika ukuya eItali kwaye, kwinqanaba elincinci, iMalta ibizwa ngokuba yiNdlela yeMeditera ephakathi. Le yeyona ndlela isetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo kwi-EU. Esi sincoko siza kuchaza indlela eya kuMbindi weMeditera ngokuhamba kwexesha kwaye siza kugxininisa ukubaluleka kweLibya njengelizwe lemvelaphi yoninzi lwabafuduki abangekho mthethweni abawela uLwandle lweMeditera ukuya kwiManyano yaseYurophu.

Ngaphandle kwento yokuba indlela yoMbindi weMeditera iyeyona ndlela idumileyo yokujoyina iManyano yaseYurophu, kukho imithombo embalwa ebonelela ngeenkcukacha-manani ezichanekileyo zokuwela abafuduki abangaqhelekanga kunye nolwazi malunga nezixeko ekusingwa kuzo. I-arhente yomda we-EU ayabelani ngokuthe ngqo apho ubhaqo lwenzeka khona. Elona zibuko lidumileyo lokuqalisa liye latshintsha izihlandlo ezininzi kule minyaka ingama-20 idlulileyo, iLibya ngoku iyeyona ndawo idumileyo yokudlula emva kokuwa kozwilakhe lukaKaddafi. Ukusukela ngo-2011, iLibya isebenze njengeyona ndawo iphambili yothutho lwabafuduki abangaqhelekanga abaya eYurophu.

Eli nqaku liza kunika isishwankathelo semali yabafuduki abangaqhelekanga ngendlela ye-Central Mediterranean, kubandakanywa ukuhlukana kobuzwe apho kunokwenzeka. Emva koko, kuya kubakho ingxoxo malunga nendlela iipatheni zokufuduka kwabafuduki abangaqhelekanga abavela eLibya naseTunisia ukuya eMalta batshintshile. Okokugqibela, ukucalulwa kweendleko eziqikelelwayo zokuwela ulwandle lweMeditera ngoncedo lwabarhwebi ngokungekho mthethweni kuya kubonelelwa.

Amanani abantu abawelayo

Kwikota yesibini ye-2014 (ngoJanuwari ukuya kuJuni), abafuduki abawela imida yaselwandle yase-EU babalelwa kwi-90% yazo zonke izinto ezifunyenweyo zokuwela umda ongekho mthethweni kumazwe angamalungu aseYurophu. I-Frontex ibike ukufunyanwa kwe-53,000 kunye ne-Central Mediterranean Route kwikota yesibini ye-2014, ibalwa ngaphezu kweekota ezintathu kuzo zonke izinto ezingabonakaliyo zokuwela umda. Ngokutsho kweFrontex, ukufunyanwa kwimida ye-EU kunyuke ngaphezu kweepesenti ze-170 kwikota yesibini ye-2014 xa kuthelekiswa nekota yesibini ye-2013.

I-Italiya ibike amaxesha asibhozo abafuduki abangaqhelekanga abafunyenwe kwikota yesibini ye-2014 kunexesha elifanayo kwi-2013. Ngokutsho kweFrontex (2015), inani elipheleleyo lokufunyanwa kwe-2014 yi-170,664. Inani elonyukayo labafuduki abangekho mthethweni abafunyenwe besebenzisa uMbindi weMeditera akubangelwa nje kukuphucula iimeko zemozulu, kodwa nangenxa yobukho benani elikhulu labemi base-Afrika ekwi-Sub-Saharan nama-Syria kwimimandla yonxweme yaseLibya.

Abemi baseSyria babalelwa kwi-23% (39,651) yazo zonke iintlobo ze-Frontex (2015) ezifunyenweyo ecaleni kwendlela esembindini yeMeditera ngo-2014. I-% (2014) yabafuduki abangaqhelekanga abarekhodwe yiFrontex ecaleni kwendlela esembindini yeMeditera. Abemi belizwe lamazwe ase-Afrika ekwi-Sub-Sahara babeludidi lwesithathu ngobukhulu lwabafuduki, babalelwa kwi-2013% (20) yabo bonke ababhaqwayo.

Ukufa kwabantu abawelayo

Ulwandle lweMeditera lube ngowona mda ufikelelekayo kwaye ubulalayo phakathi kweYurophu kunye nabamelwane bayo kule minyaka ingamashumi amathathu idlulileyo. Ngokweengxelo zeendaba, abafuduki be-15,016 bafa okanye balahleka elwandle phakathi kukaJanuwari 1998 noSeptemba 30, 2014. Ingozi yokufa xa uwela uLwandle lweMeditera malunga ne-2%. Loo nto iyenza ibulale njengokuba nesifo sentliziyo okanye ingozi yemoto.

Ukususela ekubeni urhulumente wase-Italiya waqala umsebenzi wokuhlangula i-Mare Nostrum ukususela ngo-Oktobha 2013 ukuya ku-Oktobha 2014 ukuphendula kwiingozi ezininzi zeenqanawa ezibangele ukufa kwabantu abangaphezu kwe-600 elwandle, i-UNHCR ibike ukuba ngaphezu kwe-20,000 abafuduki baye bagcinwa ngexesha lokubhala. Ngokutsho kweFrontex, bangama-29,191 abafudukayo abasindiswa kuLwandle lweMeditera ngo-2013.

Lybia

Ukwanda kwemfuduko engaqhelekanga ukuya eYurophu ngolwandle kwaqala ngeminyaka yoo-1990 emva kokuba i-Spain ne-Italiya ziye zamisela ulawulo olungqongqo lwe-visa. Njengoko bekutshiwo kwicandelo elidlulileyo, iLibya yaba ngowona mthombo uphambili weenqanawa zokufudukela eYurophu. Ngelixa iLibya ngokwesiko ililizwe ekusingwa kulo abafuduki abavela kwamanye amazwe ase-Arabhu naseAfrika, ukufuduka okungaqhelekanga ukusuka eLibya ukuya eYurophu yinto yamva nje.

Ukwanda kwemfuduko engaqhelekanga yolwandle ukuya eYurophu yaqala ngeminyaka yoo-1990 emva kokuba iSpain ne-Italiya ziphumeze iinkqubo ezingqongqo zee-visa. Njengoko kuphawuliwe kwicandelo elandulelayo, iLibya iye yaba ngumboneleli ophambili wezikhephe zokufudukela eYurophu. Ngelixa iLibya kudala iyindawo yokuya kubafuduki abavela kwamanye amazwe aseArabhu naseAfrika, ukufuduka okungaqhelekanga ukusuka eLibya ukuya eYurophu yinto entsha.

I-Sabratha, eLibya, yayiyeyona ndawo iphambili yokusuka yabafuduki abahamba ngenqanawa ukuya eYurophu ngolwandle, kodwa oku kwakungasenjalo ngo-2013. Inani lezikhephe ezishiya iSabratha liye lehla, ngenxa yokunyuka kokubeka iliso kurhulumente eLibya. Uninzi lwezikhephe ezifudukayo ngoku zishiya unxweme phakathi kweTripoli neZuwarah. Iindawo eziphambili zokunduluka kweLibya ngo-2010 zibandakanya iZuwarah (iikhilomitha ezingama-56 ukusuka kumda waseTunisia), iZilten, neMisratah, kunye nommandla ojikeleze iTripoli. Izixeko zamazibuko zaseZilten naseZuwarah zazikwayindawo yokuqalisa edumileyo ngo-2013.

Thunishiya

Kwimeko yabafuduki abasuka eTunisia, baya emazantsi eSicily bedlula kumazibuko asemantla nakumazantsi eTunis. Abo basingise ePantelleria bemka eCap Bon, ngelixa abo basingise eLampedusa naseLinosa bemka kwiindawo ezisemazantsi eMonastir. Kwaxelwa kwangaphambili ukuba ukuya ePantelleria okanye eLampedusa kuya kuthatha malunga neeyure ezili-10, imozulu ivuma, kwaye ukuya eSicily kuya kuthatha phakathi kweentsuku ezimbini ukuya kwezintathu okanye ngaphezulu. Ukwandiswa kokuhlolwa komda kunxweme lwaseTunisia kubangele ukwanda kwenani labafuduki abangaqhelekanga abasuka kunxweme lwaseLibya. Uqikelelo lwenani labafuduki abangaqhelekanga abashiya iTunisia okanye eLibya lumnyama. Inqaku eliqhelekileyo lokungena kwi-European Union yiLibya.

Malta

Abafuduki abasuka eTunisia naseLibya bahlala befika eMalta okanye eItali. Akwaziwa ukuba bangaphi abantu abangaphezu kwe-170,000 abachongiweyo besebenzisa indlela yoMbindi weMeditera abafike kwisiqithi saseMalta. IMalta ayithandwa kakhulu njenge-Itali.

Kuze kube yi-2005, iMalta yayiyindawo enkulu yokungena kunye nokuhamba kwabafuduki abangaqhelekanga abafuna ukungena kwi-EU. Ngaphambi kokuba iMalta ijoyine i-EU ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1990 kunye nasekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo-2000, esi siqithi sasisebenza njengendawo yokuthutha abantu baseMntla Afrika kunye nabafuduki baseAsia, ikakhulu bevela eTshayina. Abafuduki babedla ngokufika ngenqwelomoya baze emva koko badluliselwe ngabarhwebi basekuhlaleni ngezikhephe ezincinci ukuya kumazantsi eSicily.

Uninzi lwabaphambukeli abangaqhelekanga babanjwa kwaye bavalelwa eMalta babengenanjongo yokuya kweso siqithi kwaye babengenamdla wokuhlala. Babejonge iindlela zokuqhubeka nohambo lwabo oluya e-Itali nakwamanye amazwe angamalungu e-EU. Isikhundla se-Malta njengendawo yokuhamba ngokukhawuleza yaphela ngokukhawuleza ngo-2008, njengoko abafuduki bafumana kunzima ukushiya isiqithi besiya kwezinye iindawo.

iindleko

Ekuqaleni kwee-2000s, iindleko zokuhamba elwandle ukusuka kunxweme lwaseLibya ukuya eLampedusa bekulindeleke ukuba zibe ngaphezu kwe-USD 800, ukunyuka ukuya malunga ne-USD 2,000 ekupheleni kweminyaka elishumi. I-UNHCR iqikelele ukuba iindleko ziphakathi kwe-USD 300 kunye ne-2,000, ngokuxhomekeke kumthengisi kunye nexesha lonyaka, kunye nokuhamba kwiinyanga zasebusika kungabizi kakhulu ngenxa yokuba ulwandle lukhuni, okwenza uhambo lube yingozi ngakumbi.

Abafuduki baseMorocco abafika eLampedusa ngehlobo lika-2006 bathi abathubelezi bahlawulwa malunga ne-€ 2,000 yohambo olusuka eMorocco ukuya eLibya emva koko ukuya e-Itali. Ukuhamba phakathi kweLibya ne-Italiya kuxabisa i-USD 3,000 ngo-2010. Oku kunyukile ukusuka kwi-USD 1,200 ngo-2006 ukuya kwi-USD 800 ngo-2004. Ukunyuka kweendleko zeenkonzo ezibanzi kakhulu zabarhwebi, ekucingelwa ukuba ziquka ukufumana izibonelelo e-Italy.


Imithombo: IYunivesithi yeZizwe eziManyeneyo - Iindlela zokuFuduka ezingaqhelekanga eziya eYurophu kunye nezinto eziphembelela uKhetho lweNdawo yokuFikela yabafuduki

Ifoto ngu UJonathan Ramalho on Unsplash