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Indlela yokufudukela eNtshona yeBalkan

Indlela yaseNtshona yeBalkan inxulunyaniswa nentshukumo enye enkulu yokufuduka. Ngokukodwa abafuduki baseAsia abangena kwi-EU ngomda womhlaba waseTurkey ngaphambi kokuba badlulele eHungary okanye eRomania ngeWestern Balkans.

Ngo-2014, indlela yaseNtshona yeBalkan yadityaniswa neentshukumo ezimbini ezinkulu zokufuduka. Abafuduki abavela kumazwe aseNtshona Balkan eSerbia, eBosnia naseHerzegovina, eMontenegro, eKosovo, eMacedonia naseAlbania. Kwaye ngokuyintloko abafuduki baseAsia abangena kwi-EU ngokusebenzisa umhlaba weGrike-Turkish okanye imida yolwandle ngaphambi kokufudukela eHungary okanye eRomania ngeWestern Balkans.

Emva kokufika kohambo lwe-visa-free kwi-EU yonke ngo-2009 kunye nokuzinza koqoqosho kunye nezopolitiko kulo mmandla, iintsingiselo zemfuduko ezingaqhelekanga kwingingqi ye-Western Balkans zatshintsha kakhulu. Ngo-2024, abemi baseKosovo baya kukwazi ukuhamba kumazwe amaninzi e-EU ngaphandle kwe-visa.

Ummandla weNtshona yeBalkans utshintshile ukusuka kwindawo yokuthumela abafuduki ukuya kwindawo yokudlula kubafuduki abangaqhelekanga abafika bevela eGrisi.

Ngo-2012, malunga ne-75% yazo zonke izinto ezifunyenweyo zokuwela imida ezingagunyaziswanga kule ndawo zibandakanya abantu abahambayo. Abafuduki abadlulayo babalelwa kwi-10% yonke into efunyenweyo ngo-2009.

Kwi-2015, i-Kosovars yenza elona qela likhulu labafuduki abangaqhelekanga, abamele iipesenti ezingama-51 zokufunyanwa. Kwikota yesibini ye-2014, umda waseHungary waseSerbia wahlala uxakeke kakhulu ngokwemiqathango yokuwela umda ongaqhelekanga njengoko iHungary lilizwe elidumileyo lokuhamba kwabantu abafudukayo abangaqhelekanga endleleni yabo eya eNtshona Yurophu.

Abafuduki basebenzisa iindlela ezintathu eziphambili zokungena kwi-EU:

  • indlela esempuma ukusuka eMoldova ukuya eRomania;
  • indlela emntla isuka eMoldova idlula eUkraine isiya eHungary, eSlovakia, nasePoland, kunye
  • indlela esemazantsi esuka eMoldova ukuya eSerbia idlula eBulgaria naseSerbia.

Amanani kunye nezizwe zabantu abawelayo

Kwi-2014, abafuduki be-43,357 bazama ukungena kwi-EU ngokungekho mthethweni kumazwe aseNtshonalanga yeBalkan, emele ukwanda kweepesenti ze-46 ekufumaneni ngaphezu kwe-2013. Abasemagunyeni bomda waseHungary-Serbian barekhoda ukwanda kweepesenti ze-193 kwikota yesithathu ye-2014 xa kuthelekiswa nekota yangaphambili. kunye nokwanda kweepesenti ezingama-53 xa kuthelekiswa nexesha elinye ngowama-2013.

I-Kosovars (22,059), i-Afghans (8,342) isuka eGrisi naseTurkey, kunye namaSiriya (7,320) yayingabantu abathathu abaphezulu bezizwe ngo-2014. Indlela yaseNtshona yeBalkan enqumla eHungary, enenani eliphezulu lokufunyanwa kweKosovars, amaSiriya, ama-Afghan, namaPalestina.

Ukubunjwa kokuhamba kwabafuduki abangaqhelekanga, ngakumbi ama-Afghan, kunye namaSiriya, abahamba betyhutyha ummandla we-West Balkan bacebisa ukunyakaza okuzinzileyo, okwesibini kwabafuduki abangena eGrisi kunye / okanye eTurkey ngaphambi kokuba badlulele kwi-Western Balkans kwaye ekugqibeleni baye kumazwe e-EU. Ukunyuka kwangoku kokufunyanwa kuhambelana nokunyuka kwenani labafuduki abangaqhelekanga abavela eTurkey ukuya eGrisi.

Indlela yaseNtshona yeBalkan ibonwa njengenye indlela yokuwela ulwandle ngokuthe ngqo ukusuka eGrisi okanye eTurkey ukuya eItali, ngenxa yeendleko zayo ezicuthiweyo. Kwakungekho nkcukacha ezikhoyo kwi-2015 malunga nexabiso lokuthatha indlela kumazwe aseNtshona yeBalkan.


Imithombo: IYunivesithi yeZizwe eziManyeneyo - Iindlela zokuFuduka ezingaqhelekanga eziya eYurophu kunye nezinto eziphembelela uKhetho lweNdawo yokuFikela yabafuduki

Ifoto ngu Hakan Nural on Unsplash